Pope Boniface VIII 1294 - 1303 AD

Pope and leader of the Catholic Church

 Papacy began  24 December 1294
 Papacy ended  11 October 1303
 Predecessor  Celestine V
 Successor  Benedict XI
 Consecration  23 January 1295
 Created  12 April 1281
 Cardinal  by Martin IV
 Birth name  Benedetto Caetani
 Born
c. 1230 Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
 Died
11 October 1303(1303-10-11)
Rome, Papal States
 Previous post
Cardinal-Deacon of San Nicola in Carcere (12811291)
Cardinal-Priest of Santi Silvestro e Martino ai Monti (12911294)

 
 

Papal Bulla

web element
BULLA
Unique ID:
PUBLIC-BA7B82
Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation
 Chronology
Broad period: MEDIEVAL
Period from: MEDIEVAL
Period to: MEDIEVAL
Date from: Exactly AD 1294
Date to: Exactly AD 1303
 Dimensions and weight
Quantity: 1
Height: 33 mm
Width: 36.5 mm
Thickness: 5 mm
Weight: 34.81 g
 Materials and construction
Primary material: Lead
Manufacture method: Cast
Completeness: Complete
 Spatial data
Region: South East (European Region) 
County or Unitary authority: Kent (County) 
District: Tonbridge and Malling (District) 
Parish or ward: Stansted (Civil Parish) 
 Description

A complete lead alloy papal bulla of Pope Boniface VIII (c. AD 1230 to AD 1303), dating to the period AD 1294 to AD 1303, when he held the papacy.

The obverse bears an inscription of BONI/FATIVS/[PP]:VIII, split into three lines, identifying it as a bulla of Pope Boniface VIII. The pelleted border is mostly present, although it has been worn away at the top and bottom of the bulla. The reverse depicts St. Paul is on the left of the seal looking right, depicted with a long pointed beard. St. Peter is on the right facing left and has a rounded face with beard and hair formed of pellets. Both faces are contained within beaded borders and separated from one another by a crozier. Across the top of the obverse, the inscription reads SPA SPE (an abbreviation of St Paul and St Peter. The pellet border around the outside of the obverse is mostly present, apart from at the top and bottom. The edge of the bulla is plain and undecorated. The slot where the original cord, either silk or hemp, is still visible. The bulla has a diameter of between 33 and 36.5 mm and is 5 mm thick. It weighs 34.81 g. It is a light to mid brown colour, with an even surface patina.

 Personal details
Recorded by: Mr David Clarke
Identified by: Mr David Clarke
 Discovery dates
Date(s) of discovery: Thursday 5th May 2016
 Site
Pasture TM

Pilgrims Ampulla

web element  
AMPULLA
Unique ID:
PUBLIC-459387
Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation
 Chronology
Broad period: MEDIEVAL
Period from: MEDIEVAL
Period to: MEDIEVAL
Date from: Circa AD 1150
Date to: Circa AD 1500
 Dimensions and weight
Quantity: 1
Length: 35 mm
Width: 33 mm
Thickness: 4.3 mm
Weight: 21.19 g
 Materials and construction
Primary material: Lead
Manufacture method: Cast
Completeness: Incomplete
 Spatial data
Region: South East (European Region) 
County or Unitary authority: Kent (County) 
District: Sevenoaks (District) 
Parish or ward: Fawkham (Civil Parish) 
 Description

An incomplete medieval (1150-1500 AD) lead pilgrim's ampulla, missing its neck and side lugs. The body of the ampulla widens towards the centre, and then narrows creating a circular shape. The top of the ampulla is broken off in an old break. The obverse is decorated with a large crown, with a raised cross-hatching surrounding it. On the reverse is a raised cross, surrounded by a raised circle. This is possibly representing a wheel. Round this is more raised cross-hatching. The ampulla is a grey colour. The ampulla is 35mm in length, 33mm in width, and is 4.3mm at the maximum thickness. The ampulla weighs 21.19g. The ampulla is similar to one in Spencer 1990, 61, 139, although the wheel on the reverse is a different design.

Notes: Ampulla are known from the late 12th century and were replaced by the popularity of pilgrim badges in the early 14th century, but are thought to have continued in use to the end of the 15th century. They were often worn on clothing, and used to hold holy water from shrines, the lugs or handles used for attachment. They are often found in rural locations, and it has been suggested that this was to bless the fields (Anderson, 2010).

 Personal details
Recorded by: Mr David Clarke
Identified by: Mr David Clarke
 Discovery dates
Date(s) of discovery: Wednesday 10th May 2017
 Site
Pasture 2

Pilgrims Badge

web element  
PILGRIM BADGE
Unique ID:
PUBLIC-448966
Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation
 Chronology
Broad period: MEDIEVAL
Period from: MEDIEVAL
Period to: MEDIEVAL
Date from: Circa AD 1200
Date to: Circa AD 1400
 Dimensions and weight
Quantity: 1
Height: 15.17 mm
Width: 12.02 mm
Thickness: 2.66 mm
Weight: 1.92 g
 Materials and construction
Primary material: Lead
Manufacture method: Cast
Completeness: Fragment
 Spatial data
Region: South East (European Region) 
County or Unitary authority: Kent (County) 
District: Thanet (District) 
Parish or ward: St. Nicholas At Wade (Civil Parish) 
 Description

A fragment of a cast lead-alloy pilgrim's badge, dating to the medieval period c. AD13th to 15th century. The fragment consists of a small oval lead alloy. On one side is a bearded face and on the other cross hatching. The fragment is very small, measuring only 15.17mm x 12.02mm; it seems likely that this object has been cut down from the original, maybe after the original broke, with the face of the man purposefully selected. The man may represent St Paul (probably) or possibly St John.

Evidence of reuse: Possibly cut down from original during the medieval period.

 Personal details
Recorded by: Mr David Clarke
Identified by: Mr David Clarke
 Discovery dates
Date(s) of discovery: Monday 27th August 2018
 Site
Arable - Stubble - Saxon Shore